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We study the asymptotic behavior of a one-dimensional, dynamical model of solid-solid elastic transitions in which the phase is determined by an order parameter. The system is composed of two coupled evolution equations, the mechanical equation of elasticity which is hyperbolic and a parabolic equation in the order parameter. Due to the strong coupling and the lack of smoothing in the hyperbolic equation, the asymptotic behavior of solutions is difficult to determine using standard methods of gradient-like systems. However, we show that under suitable assumptions all solutions approach the equilibrium set weakly, while the phase field stabilizes strongly.  相似文献
3.
A solid solution can spontaneously separate into phases that self-assemble into patterns. This process can be guided via external fields to form ordered micro- and nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate that notions of interaction energies provide powerful insights into the coupling of these fields with the properties of the alloy. A phase-field model is developed that incorporates chemical, interfacial, and elastic energies, including heterogeneous elastic properties, and couples naturally to externally imposed mechanical fields. Aggregation in bulk and in thin films under patterned external load is investigated. The kinetics and morphology of phase separation are shown to depend significantly on elastic properties of the system, which include elastic heterogeneity and the misfit or transformation strain. Eshelby-type asymptotic estimates for interaction energies are shown to be very useful in understanding and predicting the trends observed from the simulations.  相似文献
4.
A continuum thermodynamics framework is devised to model the evolution of ferroelectric domain structures. The theory falls into the class of phase-field or diffuse-interface modeling approaches. Here a set of micro-forces and governing balance laws are postulated and applied within the second law of thermodynamics to identify the appropriate material constitutive relationships. The approach is shown to yield the commonly accepted Ginzburg-Landau equation for the evolution of the polarization order parameter. Within the theory a form for the free energy is postulated that can be applied to fit the general elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of a ferroelectric material near its spontaneously polarized state. Thereafter, a principle of virtual work is specified for the theory and is implemented to devise a finite element formulation. The theory and numerical methods are used to investigate the fields near straight 180° and 90° domain walls and to determine the electromechanical pinning strength of an array of line charges on 180° and 90° domain walls.  相似文献
5.
This paper proposes a three-dimensional electromigration model for void evolution in small scale interconnects. Concurrent kinetics of creep flow and surface diffusion as well as the effect of the surrounding material is considered to provide better understanding of the evolution process. The multiple kinetics and energetics are incorporated into a diffusive interface model. A semi-implicit Fourier spectral method and the preconditioned biconjugate-gradient method are proposed for the computations to achieve high efficiency and numerical stability. We systematically studied kinetic processes in diffusion dominated to creep dominated regime. Which process dominates, as revealed by the analysis, is determined by a combination of viscosity, mobility, interconnect thickness, and void radius. Previous studies on electromigration suggest that a circular void subjected to an electron wind force and surface diffusion is always stable against any small shape perturbation. Our simulations show that a shape that is stable in surface diffusion can become unstable in a creep dominated process, which leads to a quite different void morphology. A spherical void can evolve into a bowl shape and further break into smaller voids. It is also shown that the interconnect geometry has an important effect.  相似文献
6.
Microstructural length scales are relatively large in typical soldered connections. A microstructure which is continuously evolving is known to have a strong influence on damage initiation and propagation in solder materials. In order to make accurate lifetime predictions by numerical simulations, it is therefore necessary to take the microstructural evolution into account. In this work this is accomplished by using a diffuse interface model incorporating a strongly nonlocal variable. It is presented as an extension of the Cahn-Hilliard model, which is weakly nonlocal since it depends on higher order gradients which are by definition confined to the infinitesimal neighbourhood of the considered material point. Next to introducing a truly nonlocal measure in the free energy, this nonlocal formulation has the advantage that it is numerically more efficient. Additionally, the model is extended to include the elastically stored energy as a driving force for diffusion after which the entire system is solved using the finite element approach. The model results in a computational efficient algorithm which is capable of simulating the phase separation and coarsening of a solder material caused by combined thermal and mechanical loading.  相似文献
7.
In this paper we study the connection between four models describing dislocation dynamics: a generalized 2D Frenkel-Kontorova model at the atomic level, the Peierls-Nabarro model, the discrete dislocation dynamics and a macroscopic model with dislocation densities. We show how each model can be deduced from the previous one at a smaller scale.   相似文献
8.
Spiral surface growth is well understood in the limit where motion of the spiral ridge is controlled by the local supersaturation of adatoms in its surrounding. In liquid epitaxial growth, however, spirals can form governed by both, transport of heat as well as solute. We propose for the first time a two-scale model of epitaxial growth which takes into account all of these transport processes. This new model assumes a separation of length scales for the transport of heat compared to that of the solutal field. It allows for the first time numerical simulations of extended surface regions by at the same time taking into account microstructure evolution and microstructure interaction. We apply this model successfully to extend the scaling relation for the step spacing given by the BCF theory [Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 243, 299 (1951)] to microstructure evolution governed by heat and solute diffusion. Further applications to understand the mechanisms and consequences of spiral interaction at epitaxial surfaces, in particular the resulting morphology transitions, are discussed.  相似文献
9.
Domain switching around electrically permeable and impermeable cracks in ferroelectric single crystals subjected to a mechanical load is investigated by using a phase field model.It is found that the e...  相似文献
10.
The paper presents a constitutive framework for solids with dissipative micro-structures based on compact variational statements. It develops incremental minimization and saddle point principles for a class of gradient-type dissipative materials which incorporate micro-structural fields (micro-displacements, order parameters, or generalized internal variables), whose gradients enter the energy storage and dissipation functions. In contrast to classical local continuum approaches to inelastic solids based on locally evolving internal variables, these global micro-structural fields are governed by additional balance equations including micro-structural boundary conditions. They describe changes of the substructure of the material which evolve relatively to the material as a whole. Typical examples are theories of phase field evolution, gradient damage, or strain gradient plasticity. Such models incorporate non-local effects based on length scales, which reflect properties of the material micro-structure. We outline a unified framework for the broad class of first-order gradient-type standard dissipative solids. Particular emphasis is put on alternative multi-field representations, where both the microstructural variable itself as well as its dual driving force are present. These three-field settings are suitable for models with threshold- or yield-functions formulated in the space of the driving forces. It is shown that the coupled macro- and micro-balances follow in a natural way as the Euler equations of minimization and saddle point principles, which are based on properly defined incremental potentials. These multi-field potential functionals are outlined in both a continuous rate formulation and a time-space-discrete incremental setting. The inherent symmetry of the proposed multi-field formulations is an attractive feature with regard to their numerical implementation. The unified character of the framework is demonstrated by a spectrum of model problems, which covers phase field models and formulations of gradient damage and plasticity.  相似文献
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