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1.
In this paper, a parameter identification method to determine surface shortwave fluxes using temperature and thickness measurements of sea ice in CHINARE 2006 is presented. Adopting a new standard for the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of seawater named TEOS‐10, the surface shortwave fluxes are calculated by the temperature and thickness observations that were measured at Nella Fjord around Zhongshan Station, Antarctica. New simulations for temperature profiles in a different measurement period are performed by three parameterization schemes including the present method, Zillman and Shine. All numerical results are compared with in situ measurements. Results show that better simulations of the surface shortwave radiations and temperature distributions are possible with the identification method than Zillman and Shine. Therefore this method is valid, and the obtained shortwave radiation function can be applied in sea ice modeling. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
通过添加波形整形器的分离式霍普金森压杆(SHPB),研究了侧限条件下干燥砂在不同应变率和 不同预压时的动态压缩力学性能,并利用MTS810材料实验系统,研究了干燥砂的准静态压缩应力应变曲 线。实验采用的材料为硅基细颗粒干燥砂,粒径分布范围为150~245m,自然堆积状态的密度为 1.40g/cm3。研究发现,应变率对干燥砂压缩过程影响不大,而不同的预压对实验结果影响显著。  相似文献   
3.
深海内波非线性薛定谔方程的研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
考虑以跃层为界的两层分层流体,在弱非线性条件下,从分层流体的动力学基本方程组出发,应用多重尺度方法推导出描述深海内波的非线性薛定谔方程,分析方程中频散和非线性系数,求出非线性薛定谔方程的孤子解,并通过数值实验验证了理论的正确性.  相似文献   
4.
张彦敏  王运华  赵朝方 《中国物理 B》2010,19(8):84103-084103
<正>It is well known that the sea return echo contains contributions from at least two scattering mechanisms.In addition to the resonant Bragg scattering,the specular point scattering plays an important role as the incidence angle becomes smaller(≤20°).Here,in combination with the Kirchhoff integral equation of scattering field and the stationary phase approximation,analytical expressions for Doppler shift and spectral bandwidth of specular point scattering,which are insensitive to the polarization state,are derived theoretically.For comparison,the simulated results related to the two-scale method(TSM) and the method of moment(MOM) are also presented.It is found that the Doppler shift and the spectral bandwidth given by TSM are insufficient at small incidence angles.However,a comparison between the analytical results and the numerical simulations by MOM in the backscatter configuration shows that our proposed formulas are valid for the specular point scattering case.In this work,the dependences of the predicted results on incidence angle,radar frequency,and wind speed are also discussed.The obtained conclusions seem promising for a better understanding of the Doppler spectra of the specular point scattering fields from time-varying sea surfaces.  相似文献   
5.
提取了8种海参中的粗多糖,经DEAE-52阴离子交换柱分离纯化得到其中的海参硫酸软骨素(SC-CHS),除日本刺参CHS外其余均为首次获得的海参多糖。对获得的SC-CHS进行分子量、单糖组成及硫酸基含量等基本性质分析后,利用高温1HNMR对SC-CHS结构进行初步鉴别。结果表明,高温条件下SC-CHS的1HNMR图谱具有较好的分辨度。对其支链硫酸化岩藻糖的异头氢进行归属和比较,并以此为指标鉴别不同种类海参硫酸软骨素的结构差异,建立了一种以海参硫酸软骨素结构特征为指标的海参指纹图谱;初步探讨了不同海域生长的海参中硫酸软骨素支链岩藻糖硫酸基的特点,比较发现:寒带海域海参的硫酸软骨素岩藻糖上硫酸基取代以2,4-di OSO3、3,4-di OSO3双取代为主,含部分4-OSO3单取代;温带海域海参以2,4-di OSO3双取代为主,含部分4-OSO3单硫酸基取代;热带亚热带海域海参以2,4-di OSO3双取代和4-OSO单取代为主。这将为海参构效关系的进一步分析鉴定提供理论依据。  相似文献   
6.
Heavy metal contents (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd) were determined in two brown macroalgal species (Cystoseira crinita and Cystoseira barbata). Samples were collected during six seasons from spring 1996 to summer 2000 from five different sites of the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone – Tuzlata, Ravda, Sozopol, Ahtopol and Sinemoretz. The local and seasonal metal distribution and their variations were examined.

The data obtained indicate that the two investigated species demonstrate various degrees of metal accumulation and can be used as indicators for the type and quantity of anthropogenic contamination in marine ecosystems.  相似文献   
7.
The variation of the natural 15N abundance is often used to evaluate the origin of nitrogen or the pathways of N input into ecosystems. We tried to use this approach to assess the main input pathways of nitrogen into the sand dune area of the north-western Negev Desert (Israel). The following two pathways are the main sources for nitrogen input into the system:
  1. Biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by cyanobacteria present in biological crusts and by N2-fixing vascular plants (e.g. the shrub Retama raetam);

  2. Atmospheric input of nitrogen by wet deposition with rainfall, dry deposition of dust containing N compounds, and gaseous deposition.

Samples were taken from selected environmental compartments such as biological crusts, sand underneath these crusts (down to a depth of 90?cm), N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing plants, atmospheric bulk deposition as well as soil from arable land north of the sandy area in three field campaigns in March 1998, 1999 and 2000. The δ15N values measured were in the following ranges: grass ?2.5‰ to +1.5‰; R. reatam: +0.5‰ to +4.5‰; non-N2-fixing shrubs +1‰ to +7‰; sand beneath the biological crusts +4‰ to +20‰ (soil depth 2–90?cm); and arable land to the north up to 10‰. Thus, the natural 15N abundance of the different N pools varies significantly. Accordingly, it should be feasible to assess different input pathways from the various 15N abundances of nitrogen. For example, the biological N fixation rates of the Fabaceae shrub R. reatam from the 15N abundances measured were calculated to be 46–86% of biomass N derived from the atmosphere. The biological crusts themselves generally show slight negative 15N values (?3‰ to ?0.5‰), which can be explained by biological N fixation. However, areas with a high share of lichens, which are unable to fix atmospheric nitrogen, show very negative values down to ?10‰. The atmospheric N bulk deposition, which amounts to 1.9–3.8?kg?N/ha?yr, has a 15N abundance between 4.4‰ and 11.6‰ and is likely to be caused by dust from the arable land to the north. Thus, it cannot be responsible for the very negative values of lichens measured either. There must be an additional N input from the atmosphere with negative δ15N values, e.g. gaseous N forms (NO x , NH3). To explain these conflicting findings, detailed information is still needed on the wet, particulate and gaseous atmospheric deposition of nitrogen.  相似文献   
8.
The paper gives data on isotope composition of interstitial and near-bottom waters sampled in a region of gas-hydrate formation in the Sea of Okhotsk. The studies shows that heavy isotope of oxygen and hydrogen is used in gas-hydrate formation, with the result that isotope composition of its constitution water constitutes δ18O = +1.99‰, δD = +23‰ relatively to SMOW. Formation of autogenic carbonates leads to isotope exchange with interstitial water wich, in turn, changes its primary isotope composition in the direction of increasing of O-18 content. The near-bottom waters are isotope-light relatively to the SMOW standard and to the mean isotope composition of interstitial water in the studied region of gas-hydrate spreading.  相似文献   
9.
To avoid radiation exposure in the use of nano zirconia in the ceramics and dentistry industries, a Technologically Enhanced Natural Radioactive Materials (TENORM)-free nano zirconia was required. The purpose of this research was to obtain an environmentally friendly TENORM-free nano zirconia prototype. TENORM-free nano zirconia synthesis consists of processing zircon sand into sodium zirconate, leaching of sodium zirconate to form zirconyl chloride solution, separation of impurities (silica, ThO2, U3O8, etc.), crystallization of zirconyl chloride, zirconyl-oxalate sol-gel formation, and calcination. The quality test of nano zirconia products was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and Surveymeter, while the composition test was carried out by the XRF method. The results of this research obtained an environmentally friendly TENORM-free nano zirconia prototype, that has the chemical compound of ZrO2, the crystal size was 15.09 nm, the average particle size was 91.33 nm, free of radiation exposure, and its composition includes ZrO2: 96.599%, HfO2: 2.899%, and CaO: 0.303%. This synthesis can process zircon sand containing TENORM (ThO2: 0.070% and U3O8: 0.047%) into TENORM-free nano zirconia and increase the added value by increasing the zirconia content from 40.493% to 96.599%.  相似文献   
10.
辛国伟  黄宁  张洁 《力学学报》2020,52(3):635-644
位于兰州至新疆的兰新二线是世界上首条穿越大风区的高速铁路,途径著名的烟墩风区、百里风区、三十里风区及达坂城风区,风区段铁路里程长达 462.4 km,占新疆段线路总长的 65.1${\%}$,大风对铁路的运营、养护和运输造成很大危害. 为了降低大风对通行列车的危害,兰新铁路沿线设置了大量挡风墙. 挡风墙发挥作用的同时,也带来了铁路沿线的积沙问题. 为了解决这一工程实践的现实问题,本文提出了在现有挡风墙背风侧的不同位置处,设立第二道挡墙以减弱铁路积沙的治理思路,并开展了对应条件下对现有单道挡风墙、以及在现有单道挡风墙背风侧坡顶处和坡脚处设置第二道挡墙,共计3种情景的风洞模拟实验,发现设置第二道挡墙后距轨道线路高0.1 m处的沙粒水平速度、数密度、输沙通量及沉积率较无第二道挡墙时明显减少,介于8%$\sim$12${\%}$,51%$\sim$69${\%}$,20%$\sim$73${\%}$以及26%$\sim $38${\%}$,而且在现有单道挡风墙背风侧坡顶部增设第二道挡风墙的效果更好. 因此,本文的研究成果有助于优化大风区已有铁路沿线、城镇等防沙治沙工程措施.   相似文献   
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