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1.
A 21st century technique for food control: Electronic noses   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses (e-noses) and their most important applications in food control in this new century. The three components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, detection system, and data processing system) are described. Special attention is devoted to the promising mass spectrometry based e-noses, due to their advantages over the more classical gas sensors. Applications described include process monitoring, shelf-life investigation, freshness evaluation, authenticity assessment, as well as other general aspects of the utilization of electronic noses in food control. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in food control are also mentioned.  相似文献
2.
偏最小二乘法分析非线性加和的多组分体系   总被引:10,自引:3,他引:7  
倪永年 《分析化学》1990,18(4):344-347
3.
Wu D  He Y  Feng S 《Analytica chimica acta》2008,610(2):232-242
In this study, short-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy at 800–1050 nm region was investigated for the analysis of main compounds in milk powder. Through quantitative analysis, the feasibility is further demonstrated for the simultaneous measurement of fat, proteins and carbohydrate in milk powder. Two models, partial least-squares and least-squares support vector machine, were compared and utilized for regression coefficients and loading weights. The affect of standard normal variate spectral pretreatment to model performance was evaluated. Based on the resulted coefficients and loading weights, interesting wavelength regions of nutrition in milk powder are screened and the assignment of all specific wavelengths is firstly proposed in the details associated with chemical base. Instead of the whole short-wave NIR spectral data, these assigned wavelengths which can be reliably exploited were used for the content determination. Compared with other spectroscopy technique, assigned short-wave NIR spectral wavelengths did a good work. Determination coefficients for prediction are 0.981, 0.984, and 0.982, respectively for three components. The proposed wavelength assignment in the short-wave NIR region could be used for the component contents determination of milk powder, and could be as a guidance to interpret the spectra of milk powder.  相似文献
4.
Near infrared (NIR) reflectance and Raman spectrometry were compared for determination of the oil and water content of olive pomace, a by-product in olive oil production. To enable comparison of the spectral techniques the same sample sets were used for calibration (1.74–3.93% oil, 48.3–67.0% water) and for validation (1.77–3.74% oil, 50.0–64.5% water). Several partial least squares (PLS) regression models were optimized by cross-validation with cancellation groups, including different spectral pretreatments for each technique. Best models were achieved with first-derivative spectra for both oil and water content. Prediction results for an independent validation set were similar for both techniques. The values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.19 and 0.20–0.21 for oil content and 2.0 and 1.8 for water content, using Raman and NIR, respectively. The possibility of improving these results by combining the information of both techniques was also tested. The best models constructed using the appended spectra resulted in slightly better performance for oil content (RMSEP 0.17) but no improvement for water content.  相似文献
5.
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometric techniques allows on-line monitoring in real time, which can be of considerable use in industry. If it is to be correctly used in industrial applications, generally some basic considerations need to be taken into account, although this does not always apply. This study discusses some of the considerations that would help evaluate the possibility of applying multivariate calibration in combination with NIR to properties of industrial interest. Examples of these considerations are whether there is a relation between the NIR spectrum and the property of interest, what the calibration constraints are and how a sample-specific error of prediction can be quantified. Various strategies for maintaining a multivariate model after it has been installed are also presented and discussed.  相似文献
6.
Optimized sample-weighted partial least squares   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Lu Xu 《Talanta》2007,71(2):561-566
In ordinary multivariate calibration methods, when the calibration set is determined to build the model describing the relationship between the dependent variables and the predictor variables, each sample in the calibration set makes the same contribution to the model, where the difference of representativeness between the samples is ignored. In this paper, by introducing the concept of weighted sampling into partial least squares (PLS), a new multivariate regression method, optimized sample-weighted PLS (OSWPLS) is proposed. OSWPLS differs from PLS in that it builds a new calibration set, where each sample in the original calibration set is weighted differently to account for its representativeness to improve the prediction ability of the algorithm. A recently suggested global optimization algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to search for the best sample weights to optimize the calibration of the original training set and the prediction of an independent validation set. The proposed method is applied to two real data sets and compared with the results of PLS, the most significant improvement is obtained for the meat data, where the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) is reduced from 3.03 to 2.35. For the fuel data, OSWPLS can also perform slightly better or no worse than PLS for the prediction of the four analytes. The stability and efficiency of OSWPLS is also studied, the results demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain desirable results within moderate PSO cycles.  相似文献
7.
支持向量机用于多氯代萘毒性的定量构效研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
用偏最小二乘法(PLS)和留一交叉验证从90多个量子化学参数中筛选出极化率、分子量、部分原子上的净电荷、静电势等作为描述符,应用支持向量机(SVM)对20个多氯代萘同系物的三组毒性数据分别建立了定量构效关系模型.所得模型的交叉验证相关系数的平方分别为0.805、0.890、0.936.并将偏最小二乘法建模所得结果与之进行比较,结果表明,SVM预报能力优于PLS.  相似文献
8.
Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with sunflower oil is a major issue for the olive oil industry. In this paper, the potential of total synchronous fluorescence (TSyF) spectra to differentiate virgin olive oil from sunflower oil and synchronous fluorescence (SyF) spectra combined with multivariate analysis to assess the adulteration of virgin olive oil are demonstrated. TSyF spectra were acquired by varying the excitation wavelength in the region 270–720 nm and the wavelength interval (Δλ) in the region from 20 to 120 nm. TSyF contour plots for sunflower, in contrast to virgin olive oil, show a fluorescence region in the excitation wavelength range 325–385 nm. Fifteen different virgin olive oil samples were adulterated with sunflower oil at varying levels (0.5–95%) resulting in one hundred and thirty six mixtures. The partial least-squares regression model was used for quantification of the adulteration using wavelength intervals of 20 and 80 nm. This technique is useful for detection of sunflower oil in virgin olive oil at levels down to 3.4% (w/v) in just two and a half minutes using an 80-nm wavelength interval.  相似文献
9.
An algorithm is proposed for extracting relevant information from near-infrared (NIR) spectra for multivariate calibration of routine components in complex plant samples. The algorithm is a combination of wavelet transform (WT) data compression and a procedure for uninformative variable elimination (UVE). After compression of the NIR spectra by WT, the UVE approach is used to eliminate the irrelevant wavelet coefficients. Finally, a calibration model is built from the retained wavelet coefficients to enable prediction. Because irrelevant information can be removed from the spectra used for multivariate calibration, the model based on the extracted relevant features is better than those obtained with full-spectrum data. Both prediction precision and calculation speed are improved.  相似文献
10.
MATLAB语言在光谱定量分析中的应用   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
利用MATLAB语言实验紫外-可见吸收光谱法和近红外漫反射光谱法的定量分析数据的处理,着重阐述了偏最小二乘法的多元校正过程。该方法简便、实用,简化并优化了计算过程,效率高,数值稳定性好。  相似文献
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