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1.
氢氧化镁的结晶习性研究   总被引:40,自引:4,他引:36       下载免费PDF全文
本文用负离子配位多面体模型探讨了NaOH水热介质中Mg(OH)2晶体的结晶习性。提出了Mg(OH)2的水热改性属溶解-结晶机制、生长基元为Mg(OH)6^4-八面体的观点。Mg(OH)2-NaOH-H2O体系高温热力学计算和电阻在线检测结果间接验证了生长基元论点。理论推导表明:Mg(OH)6^4-八面体的共棱连接方式决定了Mg(OH)2的结晶习性。  相似文献
2.
Cu-ZnO-Al2O3甲醇合成催化剂活性组分的高温动态变化   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
 采用XRD和XPS方法考察了Cu-ZnO-Al2O3甲醇合成催化剂在高温焙烧、还原和反应过程中活性组分的动态变化.结果表明,高温焙烧可造成活性组分晶粒的生长,ZnO晶粒比CuO晶粒更易于生长和在表面富集,从而引起Cu/Zn比下降.在还原和反应过程中,一方面H与Cu相互作用引起的Cu粒子表面自由能的降低远大于H对ZnO的影响,使得Cu粒子的生长在热力学上更有利;另一方面,由于Cu的熔点较低,造成Cu粒子的表面迁移活化能较低,表面扩散系数较高,受表面扩散所支配的粒子移动引起的晶粒生长较快,而ZnO由于熔点较高,在氢气气氛中粒子生长较慢.与焙烧后的催化剂相比,还原及反应后的催化剂表面Cu/Zn比明显增大.  相似文献
3.
单分子膜诱导下的矿物晶体生长   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
介绍了近几年单分子膜诱导下矿物晶体生长的最新进展。讨论了单分子膜诱导下的矿物晶体生长与溶溶中的异同,成膜材料,单分子膜性质和聚集态,矿物晶体的选择性及晶体的表征方法。  相似文献
4.
表面能与晶体生长/溶解动力学研究的新动向   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
唐睿康 《化学进展》2005,17(2):0-376
界面现象使物质在结晶过程中出现了临界现象.但最近的研究指出在物质溶解过程中,在表面能量的控制下也存在着临界现象以及尺寸效应.实验发现,当晶体自身小到一 定的程度时(通常在纳米尺度上并和临界蚀坑的大小相近),在溶解过程中其速度会自发降 低,反应被抑制乃至停止.尽管在热力学上表面能的因素可以赋予小颗粒晶体较大的溶解度 ,但表面能却也能通过对临界条件的控制而使这些微粒在动力学上不被溶解.这个发现不仅 解决了纳米颗粒在水溶液中稳定性的问题,而且还从动力学的角度解释了生物矿物选择纳米 尺度作为其基本构成单元的原因.由于表面能和晶体生长/溶解的动力学有着密切的关系, 我们可以通过对表面能的调节来修改它们的动力学速度和晶体的形貌.反过来,也可以用动力学的方法来测定表面能及表面吸附/脱附常数等.相对于常规的界面研究手段,通过生 长和溶解动力学途径所得的数据有着很好的可靠性及重复性.我们认为,晶体生长和溶解的 动力学和表面能的研究相结合,不仅为界面研究提供了新的思路和方法,而且也会推动晶体生长和材料科学的发展.  相似文献
5.
CoTiO3微晶水热生长机理及结晶动力学研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
采用水热法以TiCl3和Co(CH3COO)2.4H2O为主要原料制备出CoTiO3微晶。利用X射线衍射、透射电子显微镜对产物进行表征,重点研究了晶体的生长规律及结晶动力学。结果表明水热条件下CoTiO3晶体的生长过程是:水热温度为220℃时,晶核首先析出并沿平面铺展;随着反应时间的延长或水热温度的升高,晶核逐渐长大形成类似六边形的片状晶粒;280℃时晶粒开始沿垂直于片层的方向逐层堆积生长,最终形成菱面体晶粒。结晶动力学研究显示:水热条件下,CoTiO3晶体成核速率及生长速率均随温度升高而增长,其成核活化能和表观生长活化能分别为89.18 kJ.mol-1和50.56 kJ.mol-1。  相似文献
6.
ScB2 single crystals were grown by inductive floating zone melting. The ScB2 structure was refined on single crystal and powder data, the latter obtained from parts of single crystals which were prepared by controlled crushing. The ScB2 structure corresponds to the AlB2 structure type, sp. gr. P6/mmm, No. 191 (R1=0.0191, wR2=0.0474), lattice parameters are equal to a=0.314820(3) nm, c=0.351483(5) nm, c/a=1.117, X-ray density is 3.670 g/cm3. The measured hydrostatic density is 3.666 g/cm3 which correspond to the Sc0.99B2 composition. The ScB2 Young modulus value is equal to 480 GPa and the Debye characteristic temperature is 1020 K.  相似文献
7.
Single crystals of the LiCoO2-LiAlO2 solid solution compounds LiAl0.32Co0.68O2 and LiAl0.71Co0.29O2 were synthesized by a flux method using alumina crucibles. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction study confirmed the trigonal space group and the lattice parameters a=2.8056(11) Å, c=14.1079(15) Å, and c/a=5.028 for LiAl0.32Co0.68O2, and a=2.8023(7) Å, c=14.184(4) Å, and c/a=5.061 for LiAl0.71Co0.29O2. The crystal structures have been refined to the conventional values R=3.2% and wR=2.4% for LiAl0.32Co0.68O2, and R=3.6% and wR=3.5% for LiAl0.71Co0.29O2. The evidence of the location of Al atoms in the pseudotetragonal coordination (6c site), reported previously in LiAl0.2Co0.8O2, could not be observed in the present electron density distribution maps in both LiAl0.32Co0.68O2 and LiAl0.71Co0.29O2. The octahedral distortion analysis indicated that the Al-substitution strongly affected the distortion of the LiO6 octahedron in this solid-solution compound system, but hardly affected that of the (Al.Co)O6 octahedron.  相似文献
8.
Supramolecular crystals (SC) which appear in concentrated suspensions of monodisperse spherical silica particles (MSSP) can be mechanically destroyed. This destruction occurs because the bonding of structural units (SU) in SC is weak and the interaction forces of SU become locally unbalanced. The SC are destroyed into microblocks with the initial SC structure. The nascent secondary suspension consists of these blocks (clusters). The secondary crystals grow from the clusters and when these clusters are large, the growth is of a dendritic character.  相似文献
9.
The crystallization of paraffins from their solution at low temperature was investigated in the presence of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers that allow the control of the size of the crystals. Depending on the type of solvent and distribution of the paraffin lengths, the mechanisms of crystal formation and growth are different. Precipitation of the EVA prior to the paraffins leads to the nucleation of a large number of crystals, whereas the adsorption of EVA on the surface of the growing crystals slows down the crystal growth. EVA can act either as a nucleating agent or as a growth inhibitor. These two mechanisms were identified from the analysis of the temperature of crystallization (cloud point), the chemical composition of the crystals, and the observations of the crystal habit. The EVA was able to co-crystallize with the paraffins in crystals of an orthorhombic structure and the melting enthalpies of the crystalline paraffin did not depend significantly on their neighborhood. The energies of interaction between the different paraffinlike components are close to each other, so that minor changes of the experimental conditions may lead to dramatic effects. This is the basic rationale for the large behavioral diversity observed in these systems.  相似文献
10.
The crystals of N, N′-dicyclohexyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxamide (DC26NDCA) and N,N′-dicyclohexyl-1,4-naphthalenedicarboxamide (DC14NDCA) were selected as nucleating agents to induce the crystallization of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP). The influence of the crystal structures of the nucleating agents on the crystallization behaviors and morphologies was studied by means of differential scanning calorimeter, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that DC26NDCA is a selective β-nucleating agent for the i-PP crystallization, while DC14NDCA only has a very weak α-nucleating effect for the i-PP crystallization. The dynamic growth processes reveal that i-PP crystals grow with different crystallization behaviors in the presence of the nucleating agents. The i-PP lamellar structures on the crystal surfaces of the nucleating agents were observed by AFM in details, which suggested that the nucleating agents induced the epitaxial growth of the i-PP lamellae.  相似文献
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