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1.
 Paraffin/water emulsions were stabilized by colloidal particles without surface active agents. Mixtures of two types of particles with opposite signs of charge were used: a layered double hydroxide (the hydroxide layers carry positive charges) and the clay mineral montmorillonite (the silicate layers carry negative charges). The emulsions were very stable and did not separate a coherent oil phase. The stability of the emulsion (no oil coalescence after centrifugation) was independent of the mixing ratio of both the compounds when the total solid content was >0.5%. Solid contents up to 2.0% were optimal. In contrast to stability, flow behavior of the emulsion was dependent on the mass fraction χ of the hydroxide. The maxima of viscosity and yield value were observed at χ≈0.2–0.3; the emulsion showed pronounced antithixotropic behavior. Weak thixotropic properties, smaller viscosities and yield values were observed at χ≤0.2 and ≥0.5. In the absence of the clay mineral, the double hydroxide particles stabilize by forming envelopes around the oil droplets. Addition of bentonites creates a three-dimensional network of particles with high elasticity which impedes coalescence of the oil droplets. Received: 9 March 1998 Accepted: 6 April 1998  相似文献
2.
Pickering乳液模板法制备Janus粒子   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
本文以SiO2粒子稳定的水包油(O/W)型Pickering乳液作为模板, 在乳液连续相进行SI-ATRP, 将聚合物刷接枝到SiO2粒子外半表面, 破乳得到半修饰的Janus粒子.  相似文献
3.
颗粒乳化剂的研究及应用   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
近年来,颗粒乳化剂因其在食品、采油、化妆品、医药、催化以及功能纳米材料制备等领域具有潜在应用前景而备受关注。本文综述了近来颗粒乳化剂的研究进展,归纳了颗粒乳化剂的种类,包括:无机纳米粒子、表面改性或杂化的无机粒子、有机纳米粒子以及特殊的颗粒乳化剂Janus粒子;并对颗粒乳化剂能够在油水界面稳定吸附的热力学机理和动力学行为进行了阐述,颗粒乳化剂在油水界面接触角以及粒径大小是其在界面稳定吸附的关键参数,而颗粒在油水界面的排布方式则主要受粒子之间相互作用的影响。重点介绍了颗粒乳化剂的热点应用,包括:(1)利用颗粒乳化剂制备Pickering乳液,以及通过对颗粒乳化剂的功能化,使得Pickering乳液具备环境响应性(即pH、盐浓度、温度、紫外光、磁场敏感响应性);(2)以颗粒乳化剂为构筑基元、以Pickering乳液为模板制备Janus颗粒、Colloidosome、具有多级结构的粒子或膜,以及多孔结构材料;(3) Janus粒子在催化领域的应用。  相似文献
4.
ZnO/polystyrene composite particles were synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization. ZnO nanoparticles were first prepared by reaction of zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide in ethanol medium. Then different amount of styrene monomer was emulsified in water in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles either by mechanical stirring or by sonication, followed by polymerization of styrene. Two kinds of initiators were used to start the polymerization, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) and potassium persulfate (KPS). The X-ray diffraction pattern verified the crystal structure of ZnO and FT-IR spectra evidenced the existence of ZnO and polystyrene (PS) in ZnO/polystyrene composite particles. Different morphologies were observed for the composite particles when using different initiators. From TEM photographs, AIBN-initiated system produced mainly core-shell composite particles with PS as core and ZnO as shell, while KPS-initiated system showed both composite particles and pure PS particles. Two schemes of reaction mechanism were proposed to explain the morphologies accordingly. Both systems of composite particles showed good pH adjusting ability.  相似文献
5.
Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy on solid-stabilized emulsions   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Oil–water emulsions stabilized by solids have been imaged with sub-100 nm spatial resolution and analyzed spectroscopically using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope. The emulsions are stabilized by particle heterocoagulate cages surrounding the oil droplets. These cages form due to the interaction of negatively charged clay mineral particles (sodium montmorillonite, Wyoming) and positively charged particles of calcium/aluminum layered double hydroxide (LDH). The emulsions were studied at atmospheric pressure, without any pretreatment using carbon K and calcium L X-ray absorption edges. Oil- and calcium-rich LDH were separately mapped, and the clay mineral dispersions were also imaged. Applying X-ray absorption-edge contrast, oil could be distinguished from water in the emulsion near the carbon K absorption edge (284 eV, 4.4 nm). Spectromicroscopy near the calcium L absorption edge (346 eV, 3.6 nm) allowed the structural details of heterocoagulate formation to be revealed. Received: 11 December 1998 Accepted in revised form: 10 January 1999  相似文献
6.
Aggregation in Pickering emulsions   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
For the first time, the particle distribution and aggregation in Pickering emulsions were made visible by transmission X-ray microscopy. Oil/water emulsions were stabilized by heterocoagulates of a clay mineral and magnesium aluminum hydroxide. Stability is optimum when the particles surround the oil droplets and also assemble to form a network extending through the coherent phase. Received: 18 September 1998 Accepted: 28 September 1998  相似文献
7.
This review presents an overview of the nature of ionic liquid (IL)-based interfaces and self-assembled particle morphologies of IL-in-water, oil- and water-in-IL, and novel IL-in-IL Pickering emulsions with emphasis on their unique phenomena, by means of experimental and computational studies. In IL-in-water Pickering emulsions, particles formed monolayers at ionic liquid–water interfaces and were close-packed on fully covered emulsion droplets or aggregated on partially covered droplets. Interestingly, other than equilibrating at the ionic liquid–water interfaces, microparticles with certain surface chemistries were extracted into the ionic liquid phase with a high efficiency. These experimental findings were supported by potential of mean force calculations, which showed large energy drops as hydrophobic particles crossed the interface into the IL phase. In the oil- and water-in-IL Pickering emulsions, microparticles with acidic surface chemistries formed monolayer bridges between the internal phase droplets rather than residing at the oil/water–ionic liquid interfaces, a significant deviation from traditional Pickering emulsion morphology. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed aspects of the mechanism behind this bridging phenomenon, including the role of the droplet phase, surface chemistry, and inter-particle film. Novel IL-in-IL Pickering emulsions exhibited an array of self-assembled morphologies including the previously observed particle absorption and bridging phenomena. The appearance of these morphologies depended on the particle surface chemistry as well as the ILs used. The incorporation of particle self-assembly with ionic liquid science allows for new applications at the intersection of these two fields, and have the potential to be numerous due to the tunability of the ionic liquids and particles incorporated, as well as the particle morphology by combining certain groups of particle surface chemistry, IL type (protic or aprotic), and whether oil or water is incorporated.  相似文献
8.
研究了聚氧乙烯(PEO)与SiO2纳米颗粒对水/二甲苯体系Pickering乳液的协同稳定作用. 实验发现,PEO的存在减小了乳液液滴的平均直径,抑制了乳液的相反转,有效阻止了乳液的熟化,使乳液具有更好的稳定性. 进一步对纳米颗粒膜的流变性质进行研究,结果表明,PEO高分子促进了纳米颗粒形成更大尺寸的聚集结构,提高了其在界面上的吸附性,增强了颗粒膜的力学性能,在较小颗粒用量条件下使得Gibbs稳定性判据得到满足.  相似文献
9.
采用共沉淀法制备了3种形态的MgAl双金属氢氧化物颗粒的水分散体系,并以其为乳化剂制备了Pickering乳液.比较了3种颗粒的分散体系及其稳定的Pickering乳液的性质.X射线衍射(XRD)和透射电子显微镜(TEM)表征结果表明,低结晶度的颗粒以形状不规则、结构疏松、表面粗糙的絮状体形式分散于水中,且颗粒尺寸随高速搅拌分散时间的延长而减小;而良好结晶的颗粒以形状规则、结构致密、表面平滑的六角片存在于水中.Zeta电位测试表明,3种颗粒在水中均带正电荷,NaCl可降低颗粒的Zeta电位而使其发生絮凝,但良好结晶颗粒的分散体系在更高NaCl浓度时才出现明显沉淀.分别采用3种双金属氢氧化物颗粒/NaCl水分散体系制备了水包油(O/W)型Pickering乳液,并比较了乳液的稳定性.结果表明,NaCl的引入在一定程度上可提高3类乳液的稳定性;良好结晶颗粒稳定乳液的能力强于低结晶度的颗粒;对于低结晶度颗粒,大颗粒稳定乳液的能力比小颗粒更强.  相似文献
10.
采用超声和高压均质两种方式分散的细菌纤维素(BC)悬浮液制备了BC纳米纤维稳定的水包油型Pickering乳液,并考察了纤维用量、pH值和机械分散方式对乳液稳定性的影响.结果表明,乳液的稳定性随纳米纤维用量的增加而增加;碱性条件比酸性条件制备的乳液稳定性高,且在pH=12时达到最高.用高压均质方式分散的BC稳定乳液的效果优于采用超声方式分散的BC的效果,这是由于高压均质后的纤维较短,可以提供更多的纳米纤维稳定乳液.计算结果表明,BC纳米纤维在液体石蜡/水界面上的三相接触角为72.5°,说明BC适合稳定水包油型乳液.  相似文献
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