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Point-of-care testing (POCT) is a laboratory-medicine discipline that is evolving rapidly in analytical scope and clinical application. In this review, we first describe the state of the art of medical-laboratory tests that can be performed near the patient. At present, POCT ranges from basic blood-glucose measurement to complex viscoelastic coagulation assays. POCT shortens the time to clinical decision-making about additional testing or therapy, as delays are no longer caused by transport and preparation of clinical samples, and biochemical-test results are rapidly available at the point of care. Improved medical outcome and lower costs may ensue.Recent, evolving technological advances enable the development of novel POCT instruments. We review the underlying analytical techniques. If new instruments are not yet in practical use, it is often hard to decide whether the underlying analytical principle has real advantage over former methods. However, future utilization of POCT also depends on health-care trends and new areas of application. But, even today, it can be assumed that, for certain applications, near-patient testing is a useful complement to conventional laboratory analyses.  相似文献
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Point-of-care testing (POCT) is a fast developing area in clinical diagnostics that is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the future in vitro diagnostic market. POCT means decentralized testing at the site of patient care. The most important POCT devices are handheld blood glucose sensors. In some of these sensors, after the application of less than 1 μl whole blood, the results are displayed in less than 10 s. For protein determination, the most commonly used devices are based on lateral flow technology. Although these devices are convenient to use, the results are often only qualitative or semiquantitative. The review will illuminate some of the current methods employed in POCT for proteins and will discuss the outlook for techniques (e.g., electrochemical immunosensors) that could have a great impact on future POCT of proteins.  相似文献
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A new immunosensor for the determination of procalcitonin was developed. A sandwich assay format was implemented on a polymethylmetacrylate optical biochip, opportunely shaped in order to obtain several flow channels and potentially suitable for point of care testing applications. The sandwich format makes use of two new rat monoclonal antibodies. The capture antibody was covalently immobilised on the surface of the plastic chip, and the detection antibody was labelled with DY647 dye. Different combinations of capture and detection antibodies were investigated, and particular attention was devoted in order to avoid the non-specific adsorption. A limit of detection of 0.088 mg L−1 was achieved within the working range of 0.28–50 mg L−1 in buffer samples. The assay was also implemented in human serum, and 0.2 and 0.7–25 mg L−1 were the attained limit of detection and working range, respectively.  相似文献
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Although increased automation, advanced analytical techniques and sophisticated information technology have greatly improved the performance and quality in medical laboratory testing, several studies show that significant amounts of errors occur. Detailed analysis revealed that most of the errors occur in the preanalytical phase, while fewer errors occur in the intra- and post-analytical phase. The majority of errors are caused by wrong sampling or occur during transport to the laboratory. This review focuses on the analytical procedures in a large central laboratory. Possible problems are described by following samples from the patient to the laboratory and back. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of point-of-care testing versus central laboratory are compared.  相似文献
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The validity of any model depends on its ability to imagine the situation or problem to which it is applied. Further, the assumptions made in relation to the model are determining for the actual outcome. Within the field of clinical biochemistry a lot of models for analytical quality specifications, based on a variety of concepts and ’clinical settings’, have been proposed. A hierarchical structure for application of these approaches and models has been agreed on at several occasions in 1999. In this hierarchy, the highest rank is given to evaluation of analytical quality specifications based on ’clinical settings’/’clinical outcome’ models, followed by specifications based on biological variation and on ’clinicians opinions’. This contribution, deals with the problems of combining random and systematic errors and the implications of application of different models to a variety of clinical settings. Received: 1 June, 2002 Accepted: 17 July 2002 Presented at the European Conference on Quality in the Spotlight in Medical Laboratories, 7–9 October 2001, Antwerp, Belgium  相似文献
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POCT provides the opportunity to significantly improve the overall quality of blood testing in an organization. The design of the product, the redesign of the testing process and the tools used to manage a completely distributed testing process, are key to the quality implementation of POCT. Both theoretical considerations and practical outcomes are discussed in this paper, using the i-STAT® System as an example of a POCT system.  相似文献
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