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1.
An overview of Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) procedures, used for the effect-based analysis of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in environmental samples, is presented. Future trends in advanced chemical analysis of EDCs and some emerging contaminants are outlined. The review also gives an overview of concentration levels found in environmental samples and discusses the correlation of calculated estrogenicity (based on chemical analysis of target EDCs) with that measured by various bioassays.  相似文献
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Although polar organic contaminants (POCs) such as pharmaceuticals are considered as some of today's most emerging contaminants few of them are regulated or included in on-going monitoring programs. However, the growing concern among the public and researchers together with the new legislature within the European Union, the registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) system will increase the future need of simple, low cost strategies for monitoring and risk assessment of POCs in aquatic environments. In this article, we overview the advantages and shortcomings of traditional and novel sampling techniques available for monitoring the emerging POCs in water. The benefits and drawbacks of using active and biological sampling were discussed and the principles of organic passive samplers (PS) presented. A detailed overview of type of polar organic PS available, and their classes of target compounds and field of applications were given, and the considerations involved in using them such as environmental effects and quality control were discussed. The usefulness of biological sampling of POCs in water was found to be limited. Polar organic PS was considered to be the only available, but nevertheless, an efficient alternative to active water sampling due to its simplicity, low cost, no need of power supply or maintenance, and the ability of collecting time-integrative samples with one sample collection. However, the polar organic PS need to be further developed before they can be used as standard in water quality monitoring programs.  相似文献
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Organic pollutants are a highly relevant topic in environmental science and technology. This article briefly reviews historic developments, and then focuses on the current state of the art and future perspectives on the qualitative and quantitative trace determination of polar organic contaminants, which are of particular concern in municipal and industrial wastewater effluents, ambient surface waters, run-off waters, atmospheric waters, groundwaters and drinking waters. The pivotal role of advanced analytical methods is emphasized and an overview of some contaminant classes is presented. Some examples of polar water pollutants, which are discussed in a bit more detail here, are chosen from projects tackled by the research group led by the author of this article.  相似文献
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This study evaluates comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF MS) for the simultaneous analysis of several classes of organobromines (OBs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), several halogenated naturally produced compounds (HNPs) and eight novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivates (PBHDs), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole and a mixed halogenated compound (MHC-1), in bluefin tuna muscles. The proposed methodology maximised separation of both within and among OB families, and among these and other halogenated micropollutants detected in these samples and co-extracted matrix components. Special attention has been paid to solve co-elution problems observed during the analysis of OBs with one-dimensional GC-based techniques. Satisfactory separation among several relevant PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs has been obtained allowing their unambiguous determination in a single run. Additional studies were conducted to identify selected NBFRs and HNPs. 2,4-Dibromoanisole, a dibromophenol isomer and hexabromobenzene were identified in the investigated samples. Several new tri- and tetra-BHD derivates were also identified, indicating that these compounds could apparently exist as structured families in nature. In addition, a tetrabrominated diMeO-biphenyl and two tetrabrominated diMeO-BDEs were also tentatively identified.  相似文献
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A magnetic material based on Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles incorporated in a silica matrix by using a sol-gel procedure has been used to extract and preconcentrate emerging contaminants such as acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, diclofenac and ibuprofen from environmental water samples prior to the analysis with Capillary LC-MS. The use of the proposed silica supported Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles enables surfactant free extracts for the analysis with MS detection without interferences in the ionisation step. Under the optimum conditions, we demonstrated the reusability of the magnetic sorbent material during 20 uses without loss in the extraction efficiency. In addition, no cleanup was necessary. The preconcentration factor was 100 and the detection limits were between 50 and 150 ng/L. The proposed procedure has been applied to the analysis of water samples obtaining recoveries between 80 and 110% and RSD values lower than 12%. Concentrations of the target analytes over the range 1.7 and 0.1 μg/L have been found in different water samples.  相似文献
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The European Reach legislation will possibly drive producers to develop newly designed chemicals that will be less persistent, bioaccumulative or toxic. If this innovation leads to an increased use of more hydrophilic chemicals it may result in higher mobilities of chemicals in the aqueous environment. As a result, the drinking water companies may face stronger demands on removal processes as the hydrophilic compounds inherently are more difficult to remove. Monitoring efforts will also experience a shift in focus to more water-soluble compounds. Screening source waters on the presence of (emerging) contaminants is an essential step in the control of the water cycle from source to tap water. In this article, some of our experiences are presented with the hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) FT Orbitrap mass spectrometer, in the area of chemical water analysis. A two-pronged strategy in mass spectrometric research was employed: (i) exploring effluent, surface, ground- and drinking-water samples searching for accurate masses corresponding to target compounds (and their product ions) known from, e.g. priority lists or the scientific literature and (ii) full-scan screening of water samples in search of 'unknown' or unexpected masses, followed by MS(n) experiments to elucidate the structure of the unknowns. Applications of both approaches to emerging water contaminants are presented and discussed. Results are presented for target analysis search for pharmaceuticals, benzotriazoles, illicit drugs and for the identification of unknown compounds in a groundwater sample and in a polar extract of a landfill soil sample (a toxicity identification evaluation bioassay sample). The applications of accurate mass screening and identification described in this article demonstrate that the LC-LTQ FT Orbitrap MS is well equipped to meet the challenges posed by newly emerging polar contaminants.  相似文献
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This article discusses the more recent methods combining gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for analysis of personal-care products (PCPs) in water matrices. We describe different procedures for sample extraction and preparation as well as different instrumental methods commonly used for these compounds. GC-MS and GC-tandem MS (GC-MS2), which are complementary to liquid chromatography combined with MS (LC-MS), allow identification and quantification of PCPs belonging to different classes with the sensitivity and the selectivity necessary for environmental monitoring. The compounds investigated include fragrances (e.g., nitro and polycyclic musks), antimicrobial compounds (e.g., triclosan), ultraviolet blockers (e.g., methylbenzylidene camphor), antioxidants and preservatives (e.g., phenols and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens)) and insect repellents (e.g., N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)). We critically review data in the literature by focusing attention on analytical methods devoted to simultaneous detection and quantification of structurally diverse pharmaceuticals and PCPs.  相似文献
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随着科学技术的飞速发展,质谱检测及其联用技术方法正以前所未有的速度、广度和深度全面渗透到环境分析化学中,其在环境监测中的使用已经或正在日常化.近年来,一些高分辨质谱及其与色谱等的联用技术在目标污染物和非目标污染物的同时甄别鉴定和分析中发挥了重要作用,其对于阐明污染物在环境的归趋具有重要意义.本文对质谱技术及其与气相色谱和液相色谱的联用技术在污染物尤其是新型污染物分析中的进展进行了总结,并对高分辨质谱技术的环境应用研究给于关注,对环境质谱技术的发展方向进行了展望.  相似文献
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采用液液萃取,气相色谱-负离子化学电离质谱技术,建立了人体血清样品中新型含氯阻燃剂德克隆(DP)的分离分析方法。血清样品蛋白质变性后,采用液液萃取法提取脂肪,再采用浓H2SO4破坏法去除大部分脂肪,最后采用酸性硅胶柱进一步净化。净化后的样品经浓缩富集,采用气相色谱-负离子化学电离质谱仪测定样品中DP两种同分异构体的含量。结果表明:本方法的加标回收率为70.2%~85.7%;仪器检出限为0.5~0.7 pg;方法检出限为15~20 pg,适合实际样品中该类污染物的分离分析。采用本方法测定了某电子垃圾拆解工人和对照区居民血清中的DP浓度水平,分别为7.8~465 ng/g脂肪和0.93~50.5 ng/g脂肪。  相似文献
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