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1.  Quasi-homoepitaxial GaN-based blue light emitting diode on thick GaN templateQuasi-homoepitaxial GaN-based blue light emitting diode on thick GaN templateQuasi-homoepitaxial GaN-based blue light emitting diode on thick GaN templateQuasi-homoepitaxial GaN-based blue light emitting diode on thick GaN template  
   李俊泽  陶岳彬  陈志忠  姜显哲  付星星  姜爽  焦倩倩  于彤军  张国义《中国物理 B》,2014年第1期
   The high power GaN-based blue light emitting diode (LED) on an 80%tm-thick GaN template is proposed and even realized by several technical methods like metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), hydride vapor-phase epi- taxial (HVPE), and laser lift-off (LLO). Its advantages are demonstrated from material quality and chip processing. It is investigated by high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Rutherford back-scattering (RBS), photoluminescence, current-voltage and light output-current measurements. The width of (0002) reflection in XRD rocking curve, which reaches 173" for the thick GaN template LED, is less than that for the conventional one, which reaches 258". The HRTEM images show that the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) in 80%tm- thick GaN template LED have a generally higher crystal quality. The light output at 350 mA from the thick GaN template LED is doubled compared to traditional LEDs and the forward bias is also substantially reduced. The high performance of 80-~m-thick GaN template LED depends on the high crystal quality. However, although the intensity of MQWs emission in PL spectra is doubled, both the wavelength and the width of the emission from thick GaN template LED are increased. This is due to the strain relaxation on the surface of 80%tin-thick GaN template, which changes the strain in InGaN QWs and leads to InGaN phase separation.    

2.  Monolithic semi-polar(1■01) InGaN/GaN near white light-emitting diodes on micro-striped Si(100) substrate  
   《中国物理 B》,2019年第8期
   The epitaxial growth of novel GaN-based light-emitting diode(LED) on Si(100) substrate has proved challenging.Here in this work, we investigate a monolithic phosphor-free semi-polar InGaN/GaN near white light-emitting diode, which is formed on a micro-striped Si(100) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By controlling the size of micro-stripe, InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells(MQWs) with different well widths are grown on semi-polar(1■01)planes. Besides, indium-rich quantum dots are observed in InGaN wells by transmission electron microscopy, which is caused by indium phase separation. Due to the different widths of MQWs and indium phase separation, the indium content changes from the center to the side of the micro-stripe. Various indium content provides the wideband emission. This unique property allows the semipolar InGaN/GaN MQWs to emit wideband light, leading to the near white light emission.    

3.  High efficiency and enhanced ESD properties of UV LEDs by inserting p-GaN/p-AlGaN superlattice  
   HUANG Yong  LI PeiXian  YANG Zhuo  HAO Yue  WANG XiaoBo《中国科学:物理学 力学 天文学(英文版)》,2014年第57卷第5期
   Significantly improved electrostatic discharge(ESD)properties of InGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diode(LED)with inserting p-GaN/p-AlGaN superlattice(p-SLs)layers(instead of p-AlGaN single layer)between multiple quantum wells and Mg-doped GaN layer are reported.The pass yield of the LEDs increased from 73.53%to 93.81%under negative 2000 V ESD pulses.In addition,the light output power(LOP)and efficiency droop at high injection current were also improved.The mechanism of the enhanced ESD properties was then investigated.After excluding the effect of capacitance modulation,high-resolution X-ray diffraction(XRD)and atomic force microscope(AFM)measurements demonstrated that the dominant mechanism of the enhanced ESD properties is the material quality improved by p-SLs,which indicated less leakage paths,rather than the current spreading improved by p-SLs.    

4.  Enhanced deep ultraviolet emission from Si-doped AlxGa1-xN/AlN MQWs  
   黎大兵  胡卫国  三宅秀人  平松和政  宋航《中国物理 B》,2010年第19卷第12期
   Undoped and Si-doped AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells(MQWs) were grown on AlN/Sapphire templates by metalorganic phase vapor epitaxy.High-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements showed the high interface quality of the MQWs little affected by Si-doping.Room-temperature(RT) cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated a significant enhancement of the RT deep ultraviolet emission at about 240 nm from the AlGaN/AlN MQWs by Si doping.The mechanism of the improved emission efficiency was that the Si-doping partially screens the internal electric field and thus leads to the increase of the overlap between electron and hole wavefunctions.Further theoretical simulation also supports the above results.    

5.  Gradual variation method for thick GaN heteroepitaxy by hydride vapour phase epitaxy  
   杜彦浩  吴洁君  罗伟科  John Goldsmith  韩彤  陶岳彬  杨志坚  于彤军  张国义《中国物理 B》,2011年第20卷第9期
   Two strain-state samples of GaN, labelled the strain-relief sample and the quality-improved sample, were grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE), and then characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and optical microscopy. Two strain states of GaN in HVPE, like 3D and 2D growth modes in metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), provide an effective way to solve the heteroepitaxial problems of both strain relief and quality improvement. The gradual variation method (GVM), developed based on the two strain states, is characterized by growth parameters' gradual variation alternating between the strain-relief growth conditions and the quality-improved growth conditions. In GVM, the introduction of the strain-relief amplitude, which is defined by the range from the quality-improved growth conditions to the strain-relief growth conditions, makes the strain-relief control concise and effective. The 300-μm thick bright and crack-free GaN film grown on a two-inch sapphire proves the effectiveness of GVM.    

6.  Effect of Al Doping in the InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapour Deposition  被引次数:1
   陆羽 杨志坚 潘尧波 徐科 胡晓东 章蓓 张国义《中国物理快报》,2006年第23卷第1期
   The effect of Al doping in the GaN layer of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum-well light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition is investigated by using photoluminescence (PL) and highresolution x-ray diffraction. The full width at half maximum of PL of A1 doped LEDs is measured to be about 12nm. The band edge photoluminescence emission intensity is enhanced significantly. In addition, the in-plane compressive strain in the Al-doped LEDs is improved significantly and measured by reciprocal space map. The output power of Al-doped LEDs is 130mW in the case of the induced current of 200mA.    

7.  Fabrication and optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes with amorphous BaTiO3 ferroelectric film  
   彭静  吴传菊  孙堂友  赵文宁  吴小锋  刘文  王双保  揭泉林  徐智谋《中国物理 B》,2012年第21卷第6期
   BaTiO3 (BTO) ferroelectric thin films are prepared by the sol,el method. The fabrication and the optical properties of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode (LED) with amorphous BTO ferroelectric thin film are studied. The photolumineseence (PL) of the BTO ferroelectric film is attributed to the structure. The ferroeleetric film which annealed at 673 K for 8 h has the better PL property. The peak width is about 30 nm from 580 nm to 610 nm, towards the yellow region. The mixed electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well LED with 150-nm thick amorphous BTO ferroelectric thin film displays the blue-white light. The Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinate of EL is (0.2139, 0.1627). EL wavelength and intensity depends on the composition, microstructure and thickness of the ferroelectric thin film. The transmittance of amorphous BTO thin film is about 93% at a wavelength of 450 nm-470 nm. This means the amorphous ferroelectrie thin films can output more blue-ray and emission lights. In addition, the amorphous ferroelectric thin films can be directly fabricated without a binder and used at higher temperatures (200 ℃-400 ℃). It is very favourable to simplify the preparation process and reduce the heat dissipation requirements of an LED. This provides a new way to study LEDs.    

8.  Fabrication and optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes with amorphous BaTiO<sub>3</sub> ferroelectric film  
   彭静  吴传菊  孙堂友  赵文宁  吴小锋  刘文  王双保  揭泉林  徐智谋《中国物理 B》,2012年第6期
   BaTiO3(BTO) ferroelectric thin films are prepared by the sol-gel method.The fabrication and the optical properties of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode(LED) with amorphous BTO ferroelectric thin film are studied.The photoluminescence(PL) of the BTO ferroelectric film is attributed to the structure.The ferroelectric film which annealed at 673 K for 8 h has the better PL property.The peak width is about 30 nm from 580 nm to 610 nm,towards the yellow region.The mixed electroluminescence(EL) spectrum of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well LED with 150-nm thick amorphous BTO ferroelectric thin film displays the blue-white light.The Commission Internationale De L’Eclairage(CIE) coordinate of EL is(0.2139,0.1627).EL wavelength and intensity depends on the composition,microstructure and thickness of the ferroelectric thin film.The transmittance of amorphous BTO thin film is about 93% at a wavelength of 450 nm-470 nm.This means the amorphous ferroelectric thin films can output more blue-ray and emission lights.In addition,the amorphous ferroelectric thin films can be directly fabricated without a binder and used at higher temperatures(200℃-400℃).It is very favourable to simplify the preparation process and reduce the heat dissipation requirements of an LED.This provides a new way to study LEDs.    

9.  Improvement in a-plane GaN crystalline quality using wet etching method  
   曹荣涛  许晟瑞  张进成  赵一  薛军帅  哈微  张帅  崔培水  温慧娟  陈兴《中国物理 B》,2014年第4期
   Nonpolar (1120) GaN films are grown on the etched a-plane GaN substrates via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis shows great decreases in the full width at half maximum of the samples grown on etched substrates compared with those of the sample without etching, both on-axis and off-axis, indicating the reduced dislocation densities and improved crystalline quality of these samples. The spatial mapping of the E2 (high) phonon mode demonstrates the smaller line width with a black background in the wing region, which testifies the reduced dislocation densities and enhanced crystalline quality of the epitaxial lateral overgrowth areas. Raman scattering spectra of the E2 (high) peaks exhibit in-plane compressive stress for all the overgrowth samples, and the E2 (high) peaks of samples grown on etched substrates shift toward the lower frequency range, indicating the relaxations of in-plane stress in these GaN films. Furthermore, room temperature photoluminescence measurement demonstrates a significant decrease in the yellow-band emission intensity of a-plane GaN grown on etched templates, which also illustrates the better optical properties of these samples.    

10.  Wavelength Red-Shift of Long Wavelength InGaN/GaN Multi-Quantum Well by Using an InGaN Underlying Layer  
   黄黎蓉  文锋  童梁柱  黄德修《中国物理快报》,2009年第7期
   Long-wavelength Ga2N based light-emitting diodes are of importance in full color displays, monofithic white lightemitting diodes and solid-state lighting, etc. However, their epitaxial growth faces great challenges because high indium (In) compositions of lnGaN are difficult to grow. In order to enhance In incorporation and lengthen the emission wavelength of a InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW), we insert an InGaN underlying layer underneath the MQW. InGaN/GaN MQWs with various InGaN underlying layers, such as graded InyGal-yN material with linearly increasing In content, or InyGa1-yN with fixed In content but different thicknesses, are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Experimental results demonstrate the enhancement of In incorporation and the emission wavelength redshift by the insertion of an InGaN underlying layer.    

11.  Growth studies of m-GaN layers on LiAlO2 by MOCVD  
   邹军  刘成祥  周圣明  王军  周建华  黄涛华  韩平  谢自力  张荣《中国物理》,2006年第15卷第11期
   This paper reports that the m-plane GaN layer is grown on (200)-plane LiAlO2 substrate by metal-organic chemical wpour deposition (MOCVD) method. Tetragonal-shaped crystallites appear at the smooth surface. Raman measurement illuminates the compressive stress in the layer which is released with increasing the layer's thickness. The high transmittance (80%), sharp band edge and excitonic absorption peak show that the GaN layer has good optical quality. The donor acceptor pair emission peak located at -3.41 eV with full-width at half maximum of 120 meV and no yellow peaks in the photoluminescence spectra partially show that no Li incorporated into GaN layer from the LiAlO2 substrate.    

12.  Effect of the thickness of InGaN interlayer on a-plane GaN epilayer  
   王建霞  汪连山  张谦  孟祥岳  杨少延  赵桂娟  李辉杰  魏鸿源  王占国《中国物理 B》,2015年第24卷第2期
   In this paper,we use the a-plane InGaN interlayer to improve the property of a-plane GaN.Based on the a-InGaN interlayer,a template exhibits that a regular,porous structure,which acts as a compliant effect,can be obtained to release the strain caused by the lattice and thermal mismatch between a-GaN and r-sapphire.We find that the thickness of InGaN has a great influence on the growth of a-GaN.The surface morphology and crystalline quality both are first improved and then deteriorated with increasing the thickness of the InGaN interlayer.When the InGaN thickness exceeds a critical point,the a-GaN epilayer peels off in the process of cooling down to room temperature.This is an attractive way of lifting off a-GaN films from the sapphire substrate.    

13.  Indium-Induced Effect on Polarized Electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN MQWs Light Emitting Diodes  
   阮军  于彤军  贾传宇  陶仁春  王占国  张国义《中国物理快报》,2009年第8期
   Polarization-resolved edge-emitting electroluminescence (EL) studies of In GaN/GaN MQWs of wavelengths from near-UV (390nm) to blue (468nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are performed. Although the TE mode is dominant in all the samples of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs, an obvious difference of light polarization properties is found in the InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs with different wavelengths. The polarization degree decreases from 52.4% to 26.9% when light wavelength increases. Analyses of band structures of InGaN/GaN quantum wells and luminescence properties of quantum dots imply that quantum-dot-like behavior is the dominant reason for the low luminescence polarization degree of blue LEDs, and the high luminescence polarization degree of UV LEDs mainly comes from QW confinement and the strain effect. Therefore, indium induced carrier confinement (quantum-dot-like behavior) might play a major role in the polarization degree change of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs from near violet to blue.    

14.  Fabrication and Characterization of GaN-Based Micro-LEDs on Silicon Substrate  
   王琦  余俊驰  陶涛  刘斌  智婷  岑旭  谢自力  修向前  周玉刚  郑有炓  张荣《中国物理快报》,2019年第8期
   GaN-based micro light emitting diodes(micro-LEDs) on silicon(Si)substrates with 40μm in diameter are developed utilizing standard photolithography and inductively coupled plasma etching techniques.From currentvoltage curves,the relatively low turn-on voltage of 2.8 V and low reverse leakage current in the order of 10~(-8) A/cm~2 indicate good electrical characteristics.As the injection current increases,the electroluminescence emission wavelength hardly shifts at around 433 nm, and the relative external quantum efficiency slightly decays,because the impact of quantum-confined Stark effect is not serious in violet-blue micro-LEDs.Since GaN-LEDs are cost effective on large-area Si and suitable for substrate transfer or vertical device structures,the fabricated micro-LEDs on Si should have promising applications in the fields of high-resolution display and optical communication.    

15.  Improved Photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN Strained Quantum Wells  
   丁立贞  ;陈弘  ;何苗  ;江洋  ;卢太平  ;邓震  ;陈芳胜  ;杨帆  ;杨旗  ;张玉力《中国物理快报》,2014年第7期
   The influence of strain accumulation on optical properties is investigated for InCaN/CaN-based blue lightemitting diodes grown by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy. It is found that it is possible to reduce the strain relaxation and hence the nonradiative recombination centers in InCaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) byadopting more InCaN/CaN MQWs pairs. The alleviation of strain relaxation in a superlattice layer results in the crystalline perfection and effective quality improvement of the epitaxial structures. With suitable control of the crystalline quality and reduced strain relaxation in the MQWs, there shows a 4-fold increase in light output luminous efficiency as compared to their conventional counterparts.    

16.  Growth of strain-compensated InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum wells by MOVPE  
   于永芹  张晓阳  黄柏标  尉吉勇  周海龙  潘教青  秦晓燕  任忠祥《中国光学快报(英文版)》,2003年第1卷第1期
   InGaAs/GaAsP strain-compensated multiple quantum wells (SCMQWs) and strained InGaAs/GaAsmultiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on GaAs substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy(MOVPE). The results of double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXRD) revealed that strain relief had beenpartly accommodated by the misfit dislocation formation in the strained MQW material. It led to thatthe full width half maximums (FWHMs) of superlattice satellite peaks are broader than those of SCMQWstructures, and there was no detectable room temperature photoluminecence(RT-PL)for the strained    

17.  High power and high reliability GaN/InGaN flip-chip light-emitting diodes  
   张剑铭  邹德恕  徐晨  朱彦旭  梁庭  达小丽  沈光地《中国物理》,2007年第16卷第4期
   High-power and high-reliability GaN/InGaN flip-chip light-emitting diodes (FCLEDs) have been demonstrated by employing a flip-chip design, and its fabrication process is developed. FCLED is composed of a LED die and a submount which is integrated with circuits to protect the LED from electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage. The LED die is flip-chip soldered to the submount, and light is extracted through the transparent sapphire substrate instead of an absorbing Ni/Au contact layer as in conventional GaN/InGaN LED epitaxial designs. The optical and electrical characteristics of the FCLED are presented. According to ESD IEC61000-4-2 standard (human body model), the FCLEDs tolerated at least 10 kV ESD shock have ten times more capacity than conventional GaN/InGaN LEDs. It is shown that the light output from the FCLEDs at forward current 350mA with a forward voltage of 3.3 V is 144.68 mW, and 236.59 mW at 1.0A of forward current. With employing an optimized contact scheme the FCLEDs can easily operate up to 1.0A without significant power degradation or failure. The li.fe test of FCLEDs is performed at forward current of 200 mA at room temperature. The degradation of the light output power is no more than 9% after 1010.75 h of life test, indicating the excellent reliability. FCLEDs can be used in practice where high power and high reliability are necessary, and allow designs with a reduced number of LEDs.    

18.  High-Quality InSb Grown on Semi-Insulting GaAs Substrates by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition for Hall Sensor Application  
   李欣  赵宇  熊敏  吴启花  滕  郝修军  黄勇  胡双元  朱忻《中国物理快报》,2019年第1期
   High-quality InSb epilayers are grown on semi-insulting GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using an indium pre-deposition technique. The influence of Ⅴ/Ⅲ ratio and indium pre-deposition time on the surface morphology, crystalline quality and electrical properties of the InSb epilayer is systematically investigated using Nomarski microscopy, atomic force microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, Hall measurement and contactless sheet resistance measurement. It is found that a 2-μm-thick InSb epilayer grown at 450℃ with a Ⅴ/Ⅲ ratio of 5 and an indium pre-deposition time of 2.5s exhibits the optimum material quality, with a root-meansquare surface roughness of only 1.2 nm, an XRD rocking curve with full width at half maximum of 358 arcsec and a room-temperature electron mobility of 4.6 × 10~4 cm~2/V·s. These values are comparable with those grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Hall sensors are fabricated utilizing a 600-nm-thick InSb epilayer. The output Hall voltages of these sensors exceed 10 mV with the input voltage of 1 V at 9.3 mT and the electron mobility of 3.2 × 10~4 cm~2/V·s is determined, which indicates a strong potential for Hall applications.    

19.  Degradation behaviors of high power GaN-based blue light emitting diodes  
   钟灿涛  于彤军  颜建  陈志忠  张国义《中国物理 B》,2013年第11期
   The degradation mechanism of high power InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes(LEDs)is investigated in this paper.The LED samples were stressed at room temperature under 350-mA injection current for about 400 h.The light output power of the LEDs decreased by 35%during the first 100 h and then remained almost unchanged,and the reverse current at 5 V increased from 10 9A to 10 7A during the aging process.The power law,whose meaning was re-illustrated by the improved rate equation,was used to analyze the light output power-injection current(L–I)curves.The analysis results indicate that nonradiative recombination,Auger recombination,and the third-order term of carriers overflow increase during the aging process,all of which may be important reasons for the degradation of LEDs.Besides,simulating L–I curves with the improved rate equation reveal that higher-than-third-order terms of carriers overflow may not be the main degradation mechanism,because they change slightly when the LED is stressed.    

20.  Droop improvement in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with GaN/InGaN superlattice barriers  
   童金辉  赵璧君  王幸福  陈鑫  任志伟  李丹伟  卓祥景  章俊  易翰翔  李述体《中国物理 B》,2013年第6期
   GaN/InGaN superlattice barriers are used in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The electrostatic field in the quantum wells, electron hole wavefunction overlap, carrier concentration, spontaneous emission spectrum, light-current performance curve, and internal quantum efficiency are numerically investigated using the APSYS simulation software. It is found that the structure with GaN/InGaN superlattice barriers shows improved light output power, and lower current leakage and efficiency droop. According to our numerical simulation and analysis, these improvements in the electrical and optical characteristics are mainly attributed to the alleviation of the electrostatic field in the active region.    

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