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Ｆ．Ａ．Ｓｚａｓｚ在［１］中提出公开问题５５：设Ｋ是Ｊａｃｏｂｓｏｎ根为零的全体亚直既约环类，研究类Ｋ确定的上根．本文对此进行了研究，证明了Ｊａｃｏｂｓｏｎ根为零的全体亚直既约环类Ｋ确定的上根Ｒ是特殊根，它介于Ｊａｃｏｂｓｏｎ根与Ｂｒｏｗｎ－ＭｃＣｏｙ根之间．并给出任意结合环Ａ为Ｒ－根环的充要条件．  相似文献

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1981年,W.G.Leavitt 深入地讨论了上根算子与根环类之间的关系(文〔1〕).但对于半单算子尚未见文献论述。本文考察了任一环类在半单算子作用下的状况。文中引进的(?)-可半单类在某种意义下可认为是〔1〕中 r-类的对偶;给出了(?)可半单类的刻划并利用上正则类考察了下根 L(M)的半单类。文中还给出半单算子作用下的环类 (?)M 成为遗传根和超幂零根的半单类的充要条件;得到了 U(?)M 是超幂零根的一个充分条件。  相似文献

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Bourno与Zassenhaus, Lizuka分别定义了半环的Jacobson根。但是刻划关于这种根的半单类的最好结果是LaTorre所证明的,Jacobson根为零的半环“半同构”于本原半环的亚直和。本文将以定义在半环上的几类特殊的等价关系为基础,来探讨任  相似文献

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§1.符号及引理所有的环均指结合环。所谓根类或半单类,是Kurosh及Armitsur意义下的相应概念。遗传类、正则类、同态闭类、(弱)特殊类及遗传根、特殊根、超幂零根等概念参阅[6]与[7]。  相似文献

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σ-根与σ-半单类的构造   总被引：1，自引：0，他引：1

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It is proved for any varietyG of groups that if the subdirectly irreducible groups inG form a set, and if the subdirectly irreducible representation algebras of groups inG form a set, then every finite group inG is Abelian. The result is essential for the characterization of residually finite varieties of semigroups.  相似文献

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Commutative multiplicatively idempotent semirings were studied by the authors and F. ?vr?ek, where the connections to distributive lattices and unitary Boolean rings were established. The variety of these semirings has nice algebraic properties and hence there arose the question to describe this variety, possibly by its subdirectly irreducible members. For the subvariety of so-called Boolean semirings, the subdirectly irreducible members were described by F. Guzmán. He showed that there were just two subdirectly irreducible members, which are the 2-element distributive lattice and the 2-element Boolean ring. We are going to show that although commutative multiplicatively idempotent semirings are at first glance a slight modification of Boolean semirings, for each cardinal n > 1, there exist at least two subdirectly irreducible members of cardinality n and at least 2n such members if n is infinite. For $${n \in \{2, 3, 4\}}$$ the number of subdirectly irreducible members of cardinality n is exactly 2.  相似文献

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The paper characterizes the class of subdirectly irreducible algebras satisfying hyperidentities of the variety of De Morgan algebras. Such algebras are called subdirectly irreducible De Morgan quasilattices. The suggested characterization is quite close to that of the classical case of subdirectly irreducible DeMorgan algebras.  相似文献

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An algebraic structure A is said to be finitely subdirectly reducible if A is not finitely subdirectly irreducible. We show that for any signature providing only finitely many relation symbols, the class of finitely subdirectly reducible algebraic structures is closed with respect to the formation of ultraproducts. We provide some corollaries and examples for axiomatizable classes that are closed with respect to the formation of finite subdirect products, in particular, for varieties and quasivarieties.  相似文献

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Subdirectly irreducible idempotent semigroups were characterized in [3], and in that paper, their connection with the various equational classes of idempotent semigroups was discussed. All these results are in terms of identities, so that examples of subdirectly irreducibles in the equational classes are explicitly known only for small classes. It is easy to show from general considerations (see the last section of the present paper) that every proper equational subclass of the class of idempotent semigroups is generated (as an equational class) by one or two subdirectly irreducibles. In this paper we give an example of a subdirectly irreducible for each join irreducible equational class of idempotent semigroups, which generates the class. This list, together with known results, gives explicit examples of one or two finite subdirectly irreducibles which generate the various equational classes. Research supported by the National Research Council of Canada.  相似文献

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The notion of idempotent modification of an algebra was introduced by Je?ek; he proved that the idempotent modification of a group is always subdirectly irreducible. In the present note we show that the idempotent modification of a generalized MV -algebra having more than two elements is directly irreducible if and only if there exists an element in A which fails to be boolean. Some further results on idempotent modifications are also proved.  相似文献

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Generalizing the well known and exploited relation between Heyting and Nelson algebras to semi-Heyting algebras, we introduce the variety of semi-Nelson algebras. The main tool for its study is the construction given by Vakarelov. Using it, we characterize the lattice of congruences of a semi-Nelson algebra through some of its deductive systems, use this to find the subdirectly irreducible algebras, prove that the variety is arithmetical, has equationally definable principal congruences, has the congruence extension property and describe the semisimple subvarieties.  相似文献